Try within the Progress and Historical past of Plate Tectonics

Try within the Progress and Historical past of Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics emanates from two phrases; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological terms means a significant slab of tough rock when tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic can be defined as how the earth’s is created on going the plate. It may also be well-defined as a rigid section on the Earth’s lithosphere that moves separately from those surrounding it (Rodger, 1993). Principle of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere of the earth is produced up of person plates which have been fragmented into several large and tiny pieces of good rock. The plates shift subsequent to one another on top of the lessen mantle to generate numerous types of plate borders which have formed the Earth’s landscape around quite a few years. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder with the plate tectonic concept; He noticed the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single big plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart about 300 million years ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research about the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The concept was commonly known as continental drift principle, and Wegener became the founder of your concept on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics theory could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from each individual other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one on the possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the idea of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift with the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle in the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to shift. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic theory and forces that were behind the drifting of your plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of several plate from the main one. Numerous major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding within the three main driving forces for the movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his concept. The large convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lessen mantle. The decreased mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to transfer out and away from the ridge thus shifting the plate buyessay.co. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the encompassing ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause reduce mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement of the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different styles of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some from the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and go away from each other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with quite a few evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some on the evidences include: the jig-saw fitting in the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were hard to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape on the earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic concept. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it numerous kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced which the plates move linearly and away from each individual other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic theory that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart over millions of years back to form the current continents.

References

Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s record in the modern idea of your Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A heritage of the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

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